Technically not an island because there is a bridge between the island and the main land. It is the largest island in Thailand and one of the absolute tourist hotspots of the country. The island has a international airport and is easy to reach by low cost carriers from anywhere in Thailand and South-east Asia. Party hotspot (and prostitution) is Patong Beach. During the 16th and 17th century the island was a stop over and trading point for ships on the routes between India and China. The Dutch, French and British had trading points and warehouses on the island. These colonial history is still visible in the architecture of Old Phuket Town. During the 19th century many Chinese immigrants settled on the island to work in the tin mines. Nowadays the Chines influence is very clear visible on the island. One of the most famous things is the Taoist Vegetarian Festival. During this festival some people pierce themselves with huge spikes and swords. Among the activities that you can do are; zip lining at one of the zip line parks and shooting guns at one of the shooting ranges.
More background information and travel stories:
Extended travel info on www.wikitravel.org/en/Phuket
Travel ideas from www. sethlui.com: 10 Awesome Things To Do in Phuket When On Holiday.
Phuket: My 3 Favourite Beaches by www.viabangkok.com.
【Phuket】 Exceptionally Great! by www.readme.me
Below: Movie from Patong Beach, Phuket